The Scientific Committee of the Future Science Awards announced the 2019 winners list in Beijing on September 7. Shao Feng won the “Life Science Award” for his discovery of the receptors and executive proteins in the human cell for endotoxin LPS inflammatory response. Wang Yifang and Lu Jinbiao discovered the third neutrino oscillation mode in their experiments. New physics research beyond the standard model, especially explaining the asymmetry of matter and antimatter in the universe provides a possible contribution to the “Material Science Award”, Wang Xiaoyun’s innovative cryptanalysis method for her pioneering contribution in cryptography Revealing the weaknesses of the widely used cryptographic hash function, the achievement of the new generation of cryptographic hash function standards has been awarded the “Mathematics and Computer Science Award”.
Shao Feng, winner of the “Life Science Award”, recognized his receptors and executive proteins for the inflammatory response to the pathogen endotoxin LPS in human cells.
Humans and bacteria in the body coexist for a long time. Most bacteria coexist peacefully with humans, helping us digest food and even resist other harmful pathogens. How the body’s immune system distinguishes between beneficial and harmful bacteria and effectively initiates an immune response is an important issue in biological research. Over the past decade, Dr. Shao Feng’s lab has provided a systematic answer: they have discovered several cytoplasmic type recognition molecules (PRRs) that specifically recognize invading bacteria, revealing the distinction between pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria in host cell inflammatory responses. Molecular mechanism. The most important of these is the discovery that the inflammatory proteolytic enzymes caspase-4 and -5 are receptors for intracellular recognition of endotoxin LPS, a lipopolysaccharide of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial invasion of host cells can directly bind to inflammatory caspase 4/5 to activate cell death in cytokines and cognate patterns, and promote the release of cytokines into the bloodstream, causing an anti-bacterial inflammatory response. In addition, Shaofeng Lab and Vishva M. Dixit Lab also found that gasdermin D in the gasdermin protein family is the substrate for inflammatory caspase and the performer of cell dying. Based on the importance of cell death in the death mode of the host in the natural immunity of the host, Shao Feng’s findings provide a new way to explore the prevention and treatment of pathogenic infections and related diseases.
The winners of the “Material Science Award”, Wang Yifang and Lu Jinbiao, found that the third neutrino oscillation mode provides a possibility for new physical research beyond the standard model, especially to explain the asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the universe.
The Daya Bay Neutrino Experimental Cooperation Group led by Wang Yifang and Lu Jinbiao first discovered a new electronic neutrino oscillation mode near the Daya Bay nuclear power plant in Guangdong, China, and accurately measured their probability of disappearance due to oscillation. The experimental establishment of this oscillation mode indicates that neutrinos may destroy the joint symmetry (CP) of the parity and the positive and negative particles. Physicists generally believe that the existence of new CP destruction is a necessary condition for explaining the formation of matter in the universe far more than antimatter and the formation of the material world.
A neutrino is an elementary particle with a weak interaction that is released in nuclear decay and nuclear reactions. At the beginning of this century, scientists in Japan and Canada discovered two phenomena (or oscillations) between three neutrinos that are known to have a non-zero mass and existence that exceeds the current physical standard model of particles. Interacted and thus won the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics. But the theoretical third oscillating oscillation is more interesting because it indicates that the neutrino oscillation has the property of CP destruction. But in the first decade of this century, physicists thought that the third kind of oscillation might be very weak or not. Despite this, particle physics experimenters in China, France, South Korea, and the United States have proposed experimental programs and launched a high-level scientific competition.
Wang Yufang and Lu Jinbiao found that the high-powered Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant in China is the best experimental site in the world as an anti-electron neutrino source and used as a shield for underground laboratories. They organized and led the collaboration group to carry out a series of innovations, including the design and development of identical detector modules to eliminate systematic errors, the development of chemically stable cesium-doped organic liquid scintillators, and the highly sensitive cosmic ray detection system. This makes the Daya Bay neutrino experiment the world’s highest sensitivity. In March 2012, Wang Yifang and Lu Jinbiao on behalf of the Daya Bay International Cooperation Group announced the first detection of the third oscillation mode of neutrinos. A month later, the Korean RENO experiment confirmed this finding.
The establishment of the third neutrino oscillation indicates the direction for future neutrino experimental research. A new generation of international neutrino experiments, including the measurement of the quality order of the three neutrinos and the experimental plan of the neutrino CP destruction, were designed based on the results of the Daya Bay experiment. The experimental findings of Wang Yufang and Lu Jinbiao will have a profound impact on the future development of particle physics.
Wang Xiaoyun, winner of the Mathematics and Computer Science Award, rewards her pioneering contributions in cryptography. Her innovative cryptanalysis method reveals the weaknesses of the widely used cryptographic hash function and contributes to the new generation of cryptographic hash functions. standard.
Password hash functions are at the heart of most cryptographic applications and systems, such as data integrity verification and authentication, digital signatures, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), information integrity, blockchain, and more. A cryptographic hash function is a function that hashes an arbitrary length of input into a fixed-length digest. The important attribute is that it is difficult to find a “collision” under the current computing power, that is, two different input hashes to Same abstract. If the collision of the hash function can be easily found, it means that the hash function is not safe, and all applications that use it will be considered unsafe.
Professor Wang Xiaoyun proposed a series of powerful cryptanalysis methods for cryptographic hash functions, special mode differential bit analysis. Her approach breaks through a number of previously accepted password hash function standards and revolutionizes how to analyze and design a new generation of cryptographic hash function standards. In 2004, Professor Wang Xiaoyun proposed the modulus difference bit analysis method and demonstrated how to find the real collision of the MD5 password hash function. This is an unexpected result for the password field, because MD5 is a very widely used cryptographic hash function that has withstood more than a decade of attacks from many cryptographers and found no collisions. In 2005, Professor Wang Xiaoyun and her collaborators extended the analysis method and attacked several other well-known hash functions, including MD4, RIPEMD, and HAVAL-128. In the same year, she and her collaborators published another method that could be further reduced in another paper to 269 operations to find another very widely used password hash function SHA in 263 operations. -1 collision. Although in 2005, due to the high cost, the actual attack on SHA-1 could not be performed. After 12 years, other scholars successfully ran the actual attack on the google cloud according to Professor Wang Xiaoyun’s method and found the real collision of SHA-1.
Professor Wang Xiaoyun’s work led to the phasing out of MD5 and SHA-1 hash functions in almost all software systems in the industry. Her work has driven and helped design the next generation of cryptographic hash function standards, including SHA-3, BLAKE2, and SM3. Professor Wang presided over the design of the Chinese national standard password hash function SM3. Since its release in 2010, SM3 has been widely used by Chinese software products.